Aug 05, 2014
A Japanese company has recreated a tropical beach in the very reception area they also use as their employee meeting space and staff lounge.
Aug 03, 2014
Modulation of functional network with real-time fMRI feedback training of right premotor cortex activity
Modulation of functional network with real-time fMRI feedback training of right premotor cortex activity.
Neuropsychologia. 2014 Jul 21;
Authors: Hui M, Zhang H, Ge R, Yao L, Long Z
Abstract. Although the neurofeedback of real-time fMRI can reportedly enable people to gain control of the activity in the premotor cortex (PMA) during motor imagery, it is unclear how the neurofeedback training of PMA affect the motor network engaged in the motor execution (ME) and imagery (MI) task. In this study, we investigated the changes in the motor network engaged in both ME and MI task induced by real-time neurofeedback training of the right PMA. The neurofeedback training induced changes in activity of the ME-related motor network as well as alterations in the functional connectivity of both the ME-related and MI-related motor networks. Especially, the percent signal change of the right PMA in the last training run was found to be significantly correlated with the connectivity between the right PMA and the left posterior parietal lobe (PPL) during the pre-training MI run, post-training MI run and the last training run. Moreover, the increase in the tapping frequency was significantly correlated with the increase of connectivity between the right cerebellum and the primary motor area / primary sensory area (M1/S1) of the ME-related motor network after neurofeedback training. These findings show the importance of the connectivity between the right PMA and left PPL of the MI network for the up-regulation of the right PMA as well as the critical role of connectivity between the right cerebellum and M1/S1 of the ME network in improving the behavioral performance.
Birdly is a full body, fully immersive, Virtual Reality flight simulator developed at the Zurich University of the Arts (ZHdK). With Birdly, you can embody an avian creature, the Red Kite, visualized through Oculus Rift, as it soars over the 3D virtual city of San Francisco, heightened by sonic, olfactory, and wind feedback.
Jul 30, 2014
A virtual rehabilitation program after amputation: a phenomenological exploration.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2013 Nov;8(6):511-5
Authors: Moraal M, Slatman J, Pieters T, Mert A, Widdershoven G
Abstract. PURPOSE: This study provides an analysis of bodily experiences of a man with a lower leg amputation who used a virtual rehabilitation program. METHOD: The study reports data from semi-structured interviews with a 32-year veteran who used a virtual environment during rehabilitation. The interviews were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). RESULTS: During this rehabilitation program, he initially experienced his body as an object, which he had to handle carefully. As he went along with the training sessions, however, he was more stimulated to react directly without being aware of the body's position. In order to allow himself to react spontaneously, he needed to gain trust in the device. This was fostered by his narrative, in which he stressed how the device mechanically interacts with his movements. CONCLUSION: The use of a virtual environment facilitated the process of re-inserting one's body into the flow of one's experience in two opposite, but complementary ways: (1) it invited this person to move automatically without taking into account his body; (2) it invited him to take an instrumental or rational view on his body. Both processes fostered his trust in the device, and ultimately in his body. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Providing (more) technological explanation of the technological device (i.e. the virtual environment), may facilitate a rehabilitation process. Providing (more) explicit technological feedback, during training sessions in a virtual environment, may facilitate a rehabilitation process.
Jul 09, 2014
Experiential Virtual Scenarios With Real-Time Monitoring (Interreality) for the Management of Psychological Stress: A Block Randomized Controlled Trial
The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones).
Full text paper available at: http://www.jmir.org/2014/7/e167/
Jun 30, 2014
Apr 15, 2014
A post-stroke rehabilitation system integrating robotics, VR and high-resolution EEG imaging.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 Sep;21(5):849-59
Authors: Steinisch M, Tana MG, Comani S
We propose a system for the neuro-motor rehabilitation of upper limbs in stroke survivors. The system is composed of a passive robotic device (Trackhold) for kinematic tracking and gravity compensation, five dedicated virtual reality (VR) applications for training of distinct movement patterns, and high-resolution EEG for synchronous monitoring of cortical activity. In contrast to active devices, the Trackhold omits actuators for increased patient safety and acceptance levels, and for reduced complexity and costs. VR applications present all relevant information for task execution as easy-to-understand graphics that do not need any written or verbal instructions. High-resolution electroencephalography (HR-EEG) is synchronized with kinematic data acquisition, allowing for the epoching of EEG signals on the basis of movement-related temporal events. Two healthy volunteers participated in a feasibility study and performed a protocol suggested for the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. Kinematic data were analyzed by means of in-house code. Open source packages (EEGLAB, SPM, and GMAC) and in-house code were used to process the neurological data. Results from kinematic and EEG data analysis are in line with knowledge from currently available literature and theoretical predictions, and demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of the proposed rehabilitation system to monitor neuro-motor recovery.
Glyph looks like a normal headset and operates like one, too. That is, until you move the headband down over your eyes and it becomes a fully-functional visual visor that displays movies, television shows, video games or any other media connected via the attached HDMI cable.
Using Virtual Retinal Display (VRD), a technology that mimics the way we see light, the Glyph projects images directly onto your retina using one million micromirrors in each eye piece. These micromirrors reflect the images back to the retina, producing a reportedly crisp and vivid quality.
Apr 06, 2014
Measuring the effects through time of the influence of visuomotor and visuotactile synchronous stimulation on a virtual body ownership illusion
Measuring the effects through time of the influence of visuomotor and visuotactile synchronous stimulation on a virtual body ownership illusion.
Authors: Kokkinara E, Slater M
Abstract. Previous studies have examined the experience of owning a virtual surrogate body or body part through specific combinations of cross-modal multisensory stimulation. Both visuomotor (VM) and visuotactile (VT) synchronous stimulation have been shown to be important for inducing a body ownership illusion, each tested separately or both in combination. In this study we compared the relative importance of these two cross-modal correlations, when both are provided in the same immersive virtual reality setup and the same experiment. We systematically manipulated VT and VM contingencies in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Moreover, we present a new method for measuring the induced body ownership illusion through time, by recording reports of breaks in the illusion of ownership ('breaks') throughout the experimental phase. The balance of the evidence, from both questionnaires and analysis of the breaks, suggests that while VM synchronous stimulation contributes the greatest to the attainment of the illusion, a disruption of either (through asynchronous stimulation) contributes equally to the probability of a break in the illusion.
Researchers have developed a new way to explore the human brain in virtual reality. The system, called Glass Brain, which is developed by Philip Rosedale, creator of the famous game Second Life, and Adam Gazzaley, a neuroscientist at the University of California San Francisco, combines brain scanning, brain recording and virtual reality to allow a user to journey through a person’s brain in real-time.
Read the full story on Neurogadget
Mar 03, 2014
Virtual reality for the assessment of frontotemporal dementia, a feasibility study.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2014 Feb 14;
Authors: Mendez MF, Joshi A, Jimenez E
Abstract Purpose: Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a non-Alzheimer dementia characterized by difficulty in documenting social-emotional changes. Few investigations have used virtual reality (VR) for documentation and rehabilitation of non-Alzheimer dementias. Methods: Five bvFTD patients underwent insight interviews while immersed in a virtual environment. They were interviewed by avatars, their answers were recorded, and their heart rates were monitored. They were asked to give ratings of their stress immediately at the beginning and at the end of the session. Results: The patients tolerated the head-mounted display and VR without nausea or disorientation, heart rate changes, or worsening stress ratings. Their insight responses were comparable to real world interviews. All bvFTD patients showed their presence in the VR environment as they moved their heads to face and respond to each avatar's questions. The bvFTD patients tended to greater verbal elaboration of answers with larger mean length of utterances compared to their real world interviews. Conclusions: VR is feasible and well-tolerated in bvFTD. These patients may have VR responses comparable to real world performance and they may display a presence in the virtual environment which could even facilitate assessment. Further research can explore the promise of VR for the evaluation and rehabilitation of dementias beyond Alzheimer's disease. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians need effective evaluation and rehabilitation strategies for dementia, a neurological syndrome of epidemic proportions and a leading cause of disability. Memory and cognitive deficits are the major disabilities and targets for rehabilitation in Alzheimer's disease, the most common dementia. In contrast, social and emotional disturbances are the major disabilities and targets for rehabilitation in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), an incompletely understood non-Alzheimer dementia. Virtual reality is a technology that holds great promise for the evaluation and rehabilitation of patients with bvFTD and other non-Alzheimer dementias, and preliminary evidence suggests that this technology is feasible in patients with bvFTD.
Evaluation of a virtual reality prospective memory task for use with individuals with severe traumatic brain injury
Evaluation of a virtual reality prospective memory task for use with individuals with severe traumatic brain injury.
Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2014 Feb 24;
Authors: Canty AL, Fleming J, Patterson F, Green HJ, Man D, Shum DH
The current study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity, convergent validity and ecological validity of a newly developed virtual reality prospective memory (PM) task (i.e., the Virtual Reality Shopping Task; VRST) for use with individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty individuals with severe TBI and 24 uninjured adults matched on age, gender and education level were administered the VRST, a lexical decision PM task (LDPMT), an index of task-friendliness and a cognitive assessment battery. Significant others rated disruptions in the TBI participants' occupational activities, interpersonal relationships and independent living skills. The performance of the TBI group was significantly poorer than that of controls on event-based PM as measured by the LDPMT, and on time- and event-based PM as measured by the VRST. Performance on the VRST significantly predicted significant others' ratings of patients' occupational activities and independent living skills. The VRST was rated as significantly more reflective of an everyday activity, interesting and was afforded a higher recommendation than the LDPMT. For the TBI group, event and total PM performance on the VRST significantly correlated with performance on measures of mental flexibility and verbal fluency, and total PM performance correlated with verbal memory. These results provide preliminary but promising evidence of the sensitivity, as well as the convergent and ecological validity of the VRST.
Virtual Reality for Sensorimotor Rehabilitation Post-Stroke: The Promise and Current State of the Field.
Curr Phys Med Rehabil Reports. 2013 Mar;1(1):9-20
Authors: Fluet GG, Deutsch JE
Developments over the past 2 years in virtual reality (VR) augmented sensorimotor rehabilitation of upper limb use and gait post-stroke were reviewed. Studies were included if they evaluated comparative efficacy between VR and standard of care, and or differences in VR delivery methods; and were CEBM (center for evidence based medicine) level 2 or higher. Eight upper limb and two gait studies were included and described using the following categories hardware (input and output), software (virtual task and feedback and presentation) intervention (progression and dose), and outcomes. Trends in the field were commented on, gaps in knowledge identified, and areas of future research and translation of VR to practice were suggested.
Mar 02, 2014
In this demo video, artist Alex McLeod shows an environment he designed for Interaxon to use at CES in 2011 interaxon.ca/CES#.
The glasses display the scene in 3D and attaches sensors read users brain-states which control elements of the scene.
Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators.
Sci Rep. 2013;3:2396
Authors: Alimardani M, Nishio S, Ishiguro H
Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.
Feb 09, 2014
A high-fidelity virtual environment for the study of paranoia.
Schizophr Res Treatment. 2013;2013:538185
Authors: Broome MR, Zányi E, Hamborg T, Selmanovic E, Czanner S, Birchwood M, Chalmers A, Singh SP
Abstract. Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR) environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n = 32) entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists.
Effects of the addition of transcranial direct current stimulation to virtual reality therapy after stroke: A pilot randomized controlled trial
Effects of the addition of transcranial direct current stimulation to virtual reality therapy after stroke: A pilot randomized controlled trial.
NeuroRehabilitation. 2014 Jan 28;
Authors: Viana RT, Laurentino GE, Souza RJ, Fonseca JB, Silva Filho EM, Dias SN, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Monte-Silva KK
Abstract. BACKGROUND: Upper limb (UL) impairment is the most common disabling deficit following a stroke. Previous studies have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances the effect of conventional therapies.
OBJECTIVE: This pilot double-blind randomized control trial aimed to determine whether or not tDCS, combined with Wii virtual reality therapy (VRT), would be superior to Wii therapy alone in improving upper limb function and quality of life in chronic stroke individuals.
METHODS: Twenty participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group that received VRT and tDCS, or a control group that received VRT and sham tDCS. The therapy was delivered over 15 sessions with 13 minutes of active or sham anodal tDCS, and one hour of virtual reality therapy. The outcomes included were determined using the Fugl-Meyer scale, the Wolf motor function test, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS), grip strength, and the stroke specific quality of life scale (SSQOL). Minimal clinically important differences (MCID) were observed when assessing outcome data.
RESULTS: Both groups demonstrated gains in all evaluated areas, except for the SSQOL-UL domain. Differences between groups were only observed in wrist spasticity levels in the experimental group, where more than 50% of the participants achieved the MCID.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that tDCS, combined with VRT therapy, should be investigated and clarified further.
The importance of synchrony and temporal order of visual and tactile input for illusory limb ownership experiences - an FMRI study applying virtual reality
The importance of synchrony and temporal order of visual and tactile input for illusory limb ownership experiences - an FMRI study applying virtual reality.
PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e87013
Authors: Bekrater-Bodmann R, Foell J, Diers M, Kamping S, Rance M, Kirsch P, Trojan J, Fuchs X, Bach F, Cakmak HK, Maaß H, Flor H
Abstract. In the so-called rubber hand illusion, synchronous visuotactile stimulation of a visible rubber hand together with one's own hidden hand elicits ownership experiences for the artificial limb. Recently, advanced virtual reality setups were developed to induce a virtual hand illusion (VHI). Here, we present functional imaging data from a sample of 25 healthy participants using a new device to induce the VHI in the environment of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. In order to evaluate the neuronal robustness of the illusion, we varied the degree of synchrony between visual and tactile events in five steps: in two conditions, the tactile stimulation was applied prior to visual stimulation (asynchrony of -300 ms or -600 ms), whereas in another two conditions, the tactile stimulation was applied after visual stimulation (asynchrony of +300 ms or +600 ms). In the fifth condition, tactile and visual stimulation was applied synchronously. On a subjective level, the VHI was successfully induced by synchronous visuotactile stimulation. Asynchronies between visual and tactile input of ±300 ms did not significantly diminish the vividness of illusion, whereas asynchronies of ±600 ms did. The temporal order of visual and tactile stimulation had no effect on VHI vividness. Conjunction analyses of functional MRI data across all conditions revealed significant activation in bilateral ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Further characteristic activation patterns included bilateral activity in the motion-sensitive medial superior temporal area as well as in the bilateral Rolandic operculum, suggesting their involvement in the processing of bodily awareness through the integration of visual and tactile events. A comparison of the VHI-inducing conditions with asynchronous control conditions of ±600 ms yielded significant PMv activity only contralateral to the stimulation site. These results underline the temporal limits of the induction of limb ownership related to multisensory body-related input.
Feb 02, 2014
Activation of the human mirror neuron system during the observation of the manipulation of virtual tools in the absence of a visible effector limb
Activation of the human mirror neuron system during the observation of the manipulation of virtual tools in the absence of a visible effector limb.
Neurosci Lett. 2013 Oct 25;555:220-4
Authors: Modroño C, Navarrete G, Rodríguez-Hernández AF, González-Mora JL
Abstract. This work explores the mirror neuron system activity produced by the observation of virtual tool manipulations in the absence of a visible effector limb. Functional MRI data was obtained from healthy right-handed participants who manipulated a virtual paddle in the context of a digital game and watched replays of their actions. The results show how action observation produced extended bilateral activations in the parietofrontal mirror neuron system. At the same time, three regions in the left hemisphere (in the primary motor and the primary somatosensory cortex, the supplementary motor area and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed a reduced BOLD, possibly related with the prevention of inappropriate motor execution. These results can be of interest for researchers and developers working in the field of action observation neurorehabilitation.
Jan 25, 2014
The Intel® Core™ i7-based MemoryMirror takes the clothes shopping experience to a whole different level, allowing shoppers to try on multiple outfits, then virtually view and compare previous choices on the mirror itself using intuitive hand gestures. Users control all their data and can remain anonymous to the retailer if they so choose. The Memory Mirror uses Intel integrated graphics technology to create avatars of the shopper wearing various clothing that can be shared with friends to solicit feedback or viewed instantly to make an immediate in-store purchase. Shoppers can also save their looks in mobile app should they decide to purchase at a later time online.