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Oct 19, 2010

Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory

Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

PLoS One. 2010;5(10):

Authors: Kalpouzos G, Eriksson J, Sjölie D, Molin J, Nyberg L

BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM) denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD), TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital) system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal) system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY) model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

May 06, 2009

Open Source Eye-Tracker

Via Mauro Cherubini's blog

The Gaze Group at the IT University of Copenhagen is developing an open-source eye-tracking application that will provide a low-cost alternative to commercial gaze tracking systems. The ITU Gaze Tracker is video-based and works with any videocamera or a webcam equipped with infrared nightvision

More to explore: San Agustin, J., Skovsgaard, H., Hansen, J. P., and Hansen, D. W. 2009. Low-cost gaze interaction: ready to deliver the promises. In Proceedings of the 27th international Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Boston, MA, USA, April 04 - 09, 2009). CHI EA ‘09. ACM, New York, NY, 4453-4458.



Sep 20, 2007

A low cost human computer interface based on eye tracking

A Low Cost Human Computer Interface based on Eye Tracking.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1(1):3226-3229

Authors: Hiley JB, Redekopp AH, Fazel-Rezai R

This paper describes the implementation of a human computer interface based on eye tracking. Current commercially available systems exist, but have limited use due mainly to their large cost. The system described in this paper was designed to be a low cost and unobtrusive. The technique was video-oculography assisted by corneal reflections. An off-the shelf CCD webcam was used to capture images. The images were analyzed in software to extract key features of the eye. The users gaze point was then calculated based on the relative position of these features. The system is capable of calculating eye-gaze in real-time to provide a responsive interaction. A throughput of eight gaze points per second was achieved. The accuracy of the fixations based on the calculated eye-gazes were within 1 cm of the on-screen gaze location. By developing a low-cost system, this technology is made accessible to a wider range of applications.

Apr 27, 2007

Using Eyetracking to Optimise Persuasion-Centered Design

From UsabilityNews 

Event Date: 26 April 2007 to 26 April 2007

Using Eyetracking to Optimise Persuasion-Centered Design: Rob Stevens, Bunnyfoot

Persuasion-Centered Design (PCD) utilises behavioural segmentation to plan different user journeys for different personality types. For example, competitive consumers receive less detailed information than methodical consumers. PCD facilitates consumers in self-selecting their behavioural type by utilizing descriptive in line links. By eyetracking consumers we can see if they engage with a link and choose not to select it. With PCD this outcome is often a planned for event, one that would be impossible to reliably measure without eyetracking.


Mar 16, 2007

New eye-tracking system analyzes the interest level of TV viewers

Via Pink Tentacle

Eye-tracking system recognizes viewer interest ---

NTT Learning Systems (NTTLS) and the Visual Interactive Sensitivity Research Institute (VIS),  have developed a eye-tracking system that analyzes the interest level of TV viewers and web surfers by monitoring their eye movement, pupil size and blinking. 

read more >> 

21:41 Posted in Research tools | Permalink | Comments (0) | Tags: eye-tracking

Oct 13, 2006

Detection of Differential Viewing Patterns to Erotic and Non-Erotic Stimuli Using Eye-Tracking

Detection of Differential Viewing Patterns to Erotic and Non-Erotic Stimuli Using Eye-Tracking Methodology.

Arch Sex Behav. 2006 Oct 10;

Authors: Lykins AD, Meana M, Kambe G

As a first step in the investigation of the role of visual attention in the processing of erotic stimuli, eye-tracking methodology was employed to measure eye movements during erotic scene presentation. Because eye-tracking is a novel methodology in sexuality research, we attempted to determine whether the eye-tracker could detect differences (should they exist) in visual attention to erotic and non-erotic scenes. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with a series of erotic and non-erotic images and tracked their eye movements during image presentation. Comparisons between erotic and non-erotic image groups showed significant differences on two of three dependent measures of visual attention (number of fixations and total time) in both men and women. As hypothesized, there was a significant Stimulus x Scene Region interaction, indicating that participants visually attended to the body more in the erotic stimuli than in the non-erotic stimuli, as evidenced by a greater number of fixations and longer total time devoted to that region. These findings provide support for the application of eye-tracking methodology as a measure of visual attentional capture in sexuality research. Future applications of this methodology to expand our knowledge of the role of cognition in sexuality are suggested.

20:10 Posted in Research tools | Permalink | Comments (0) | Tags: eye-tracking

Sep 30, 2006

Endoscopic eye tracking system for fMRI

Endoscopic eye tracking system for fMRI.

J Neurosci Methods. 2006 Sep 13;

Authors: Kanowski M, Rieger JW, Noesselt T, Tempelmann C, Hinrichs H

Here we introduce a new video-based real-time eye tracking system suitable for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) application. The described system monitors the subject's eye, which is illuminated with infrared light, directly at the headcoil using an endoscopic fibre optical system. This endoscopic technique assures reliable, easy-to-use and fast adjustment. It requires only a minimal amount of equipment at the headcoil and inside the examination room. Moreover, the short distance between the image acquisition optics and the eye provides high spatial tracking resolution. Interference from physiological head movement is effectively reduced by simultaneous tracking of both eye and head movements.