Aug 02, 2007
Internal and external imagery perspective measurement and use in imagining open and closed sports skills
Internal and external imagery perspective measurement and use in imagining open and closed sports skills: an exploratory study.
Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Apr;104(2):387-404
Authors: Spittle M, Morris T
This study explored the measurement and use of internal and external imagery perspectives during imagery of open and closed sports skills. Participants (N=41; male=23; female=18), ages 14 to 28 (M = 19.4 yr.; SD = 3.1), who were recruited from undergraduate classes in human movement and physical education, and local sporting teams, completed the Imagery Use Questionnaire and then imagined performing eight common sports skills, four open skills and four closed skills, in a random order. Participants provided concurrent verbalisation during their imagery. Immediately after imagining each skill, participants completed a rating scale and retrospective verbalisation of imagery perspective use. Analysis indicated that the questionnaire gave a general imagery perspective preference but was not a strong predictor of imagery used on specific occasions. The three measures of imagery perspective were equivalent in imagining performing particular skills. Participants experienced more internal imagery than external imagery while imagining the eight sports skills, but there was no significant difference between perspective use on the open and closed skills.